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Languages In Finland: Exploring the Official Languages and Beyond

Posted by Ethan N. on May 20, 2024.

Finland, a Nordic nation renowned for its picturesque landscapes and innovative spirit, is also a fascinating tapestry of languages. While Finnish and Swedish are officially recognized as national languages, the country’s linguistic diversity extends far beyond these two. This article delves into the rich languages In Finland, exploring its official languages, the history behind their status, and the vibrant tapestry of other spoken languages that contribute to the nation’s cultural richness.

1. Finnish – Finland’s Main language

Finnish, a language belonging to the Finno-Ugric branch of the Uralic language family, holds a prominent position as the main language spoken in Finland. Spoken by approximately 92% of the Finnish population, its prevalence is evident in everyday life, from government institutions and education to media and cultural expressions. The language’s unique features, including its agglutinative structure (where suffixes are added to words to create complex meanings) and its vowel harmony system (where vowels in a word must belong to a specific group), make it intriguing for language enthusiasts.


Origins of Finnish Language

The roots of the Finnish language can be traced back centuries, with its earliest form being Proto-Finnic, spoken by people inhabiting the Fennoscandian region during the early Iron Age. Finnish, along with Estonian, Saami, and several other languages, belongs to the Finnic subgroup of the Uralic language family. It has been influenced by various languages throughout history, including Swedish, German, Russian, and more recently, English.

Unique Aspects of Finnish Language

One of the most notable features of the Finnish language is its agglutinative structure. This means that words can have multiple suffixes attached to them, creating complex meanings. For example, the Finnish word “talo” (house) can have the following suffixes added to it:

  • “ni” – in my house
  • “ssa” – in the house
  • “lle” – to the house
  • “ta” – the house
  • “tani” – my house
  • “emme” – we do not
  • “sta” – from the house

As you can see, these suffixes change the meaning of the word “house” in various ways, making Finnish a highly expressive language. Another unique aspect of Finnish is its vowel harmony system, where vowels in a word must belong to the same group. This feature makes Finnish words flow smoothly and adds to the musicality of the language.

The Importance of Finnish Language in Finland

The prevalence of the languages In Finland in everyday life highlights its importance in the country’s culture and identity. Finnish is the sole official language of Finland, with all government institutions, schools, and media outlets using it as the primary language. It is also the primary language of instruction in schools, with students learning Swedish as a second language. Additionally, all official documents, such as passports and birth certificates, are written in Finnish, further emphasizing its significance in the daily lives of Finns.

2. Swedish as National Language – A Historical Perspective

While Finnish is the main language spoken in Finland, Swedish holds an equally significant position as the second national language. This may come as a surprise to some, considering that Sweden and Finland were once part of the same kingdom but have been separate countries for over 200 years. So why is Swedish still recognized as the national languages in Finland?

History of Swedish in Finland

The roots of Swedish in Finland date back to the 12th century when Sweden established its rule over Finland. During this time, Swedish was the language used by the nobility and the administrative class in Finland. Its use continued even after Finland became a Grand Duchy under the Russian Empire in 1809. However, it was not until 1917, when Finland gained independence, that Swedish was recognized as an official language alongside Finnish.

Benefits of Bilingualism in Finland

The recognition of Swedish as a national language has several benefits for Finland. Firstly, it allows for better communication and cooperation between Finland and its neighboring countries, namely Sweden and Norway, where Swedish is also spoken. This is especially important in areas such as trade, politics, and education.

Moreover, being bilingual has numerous cognitive benefits, such as improved memory, problem-solving skills, and multitasking abilities. This means that Finns who speak both Finnish and Swedish have an advantage in these areas, contributing to their success in fields like business, science, and technology.

Challenges of Maintaining Two National Languages

While there are many advantages to having two national languages In Finland, it also presents some challenges. One of the main difficulties is ensuring equal opportunities for both languages in government institutions and education. This includes providing services, resources, and information in both languages, as well as making sure that both languages are taught and used equally in schools.

Another challenge is maintaining the status and use of Swedish as a minority language in Finland. With only 5% of the population speaking Swedish as their first language, there is a risk of the language becoming marginalized. To prevent this, the government has implemented policies to promote and protect the use of Swedish in all aspects of society.

3. Other Spoken Languages In Finland

While Finnish and Swedish are the two national languages of Finland, the country’s linguistic diversity goes far beyond these two. In fact, there are over 70 different languages spoken in Finland, reflecting its history as a melting pot of cultures and influences. Some of the other spoken languages in Finland include:

Sami languages

The Sami people, who are indigenous to northern Europe, have been living in the northern parts of Finland for thousands of years. They have their own unique cultural practices and languages, which are still spoken by a small percentage of the population. The three Sami spoken languages In Finland are Northern Sami, Inari Sami, and Skolt Sami.



The Romani people, commonly known as Gypsies, have a long history in Finland, dating back to the 16th century. They have their own language, which is closely related to Hindi and Urdu, and is spoken by approximately 5,000 people in Finland.


Karelian is a language spoken by the Karelian people, who live in the eastern parts of Finland. It is closely related to Finnish and is also spoken in Russia. While it is not officially recognized as one of minority languages In Finland, efforts are being made to preserve and promote its use.


As in many countries around the world, English has become a popular second language in Finland. It is taught in schools from a young age and is widely used in international business, education, and tourism. In fact, Finland ranks highly in English proficiency among non-native countries.


Due to its proximity to Russia, Russian is one of the most commonly spoken languages in Finland after Finnish and Swedish. It is also the second official language of the autonomous region of Åland, where there is a significant Russian-speaking population.


Estonian, a Finnic language closely related to Finnish, is also spoken by a significant number of people in Finland. This is due to the large Estonian immigrant community in the country, with many Estonians working in the service and construction industries.



With an increasing number of immigrants and refugees from the Middle East and North Africa, Arabic has become one of the fastest-growing languages in Finland. It is also taught in schools and used in various government services to cater to the needs of Arabic-speaking communities.

4. Benefits and Challenges of Finland’s Two National Languages

The diversity of languages in Finland has many advantages, including cultural richness, economic opportunities, and cognitive benefits. However, it also presents some challenges that the country must address. One of the main challenges is achieving a balance between promoting and preserving Finnish and Swedish as national languages while also catering to the needs of other language communities. This requires effective language policies and resources to ensure equal opportunities for all languages.

Moreover, while bilingualism can have numerous benefits, it can also create linguistic divides within society. Some may argue that focusing on two national languages hinders the development of other languages and contributes to language discrimination. Therefore, it is essential for Finland to continue promoting and preserving its linguistic diversity while also addressing any inequalities that may arise.

5. Conclusion

In conclusion, the languages In Finland is a fascinating tapestry of languages, shaped by its history, culture, and geographical location. While Finnish and Swedish hold a prominent position as the two national languages, the country’s linguistic diversity extends far beyond these two. The rich history and unique features of these languages make them significant cultural assets, contributing to Finland’s identity and success on the global stage. 

Moreover, the presence of various other languages adds to the country’s cultural richness and provides numerous benefits in terms of education, trade, and relationships with neighboring countries. It is crucial for Finland translation services to continue promoting and preserving its linguistic diversity, ensuring equal opportunities for all languages, and celebrating the unique aspects of each language that contribute to the nation’s vibrancy.

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